Month: February 2016

Is your code a dodecahedron?

One of the key metrics of software quality is cyclomatic complexity. It gives an idea of the number of tests needed to cover all the code in a method (the number of “execution paths”), which often correlates inversely with the readability and maintainability of the code (i.e. lower is better). There are a lot of tools which calculate it for you.

But did you know that McCabe’s formula for cyclomatic complexity is basically the same as Euler’s formula to calculate the number of faces of a polyhedron?

For calculating cyclomatic complexity, each statement in the code is considered a vertex in a graph, and an edge in the graph is added from that vertex to each possible statement which could follow it (including the implicit return if there isn’t an explicit one). Thus an if statement is a vertex with 2 outgoing edges (the true case and the false case), for example.

Where E and V are respectively the number of edges and the number of vertices:

Complexity = E – V + 2

In Euler’s formula, rearranged, the number of faces F = E – V + 2, which is the same as the formula for cyclomatic complexity.

So that really ugly legacy method you’d rather not have to modify might actually be a dodecahedron…

A (regular) dodecahedron

Digression: My browser’s spell-checker suggested for this post the title “Is your code a rhododendron?”. If you have ever written or seen rhododendron-like code, please leave a comment about it. 🙂


With software craftsmanship there’s a lot to say about tools and methodologies, but if I had to sum up in only 1 word what you need to do to be a software craftsman or craftswoman it would be “care”.

As in:

  • care about the people (including your memory-challenged future self) who will have to work with the code you’re writing today – 6 months, 2 years or maybe even 10 years from now
  • care about the people who will be using the software you’re developing today
  • care about the people who have staked their reputation on the product you’re developing today (and about whatever promises you make to them)
  • care about learning to be better at what you do
  • care about what your fellow team members are working on and about being able to give them a hand if necessary
  • care about mentoring your fellow team members and others

Some cynical people think that Software Craftsmanship is a fad to sell training and consulting. There may or may not be a grain of truth to that, but there’s no certificate for caring – either you care, and the results will gradually become evident, or you don’t care, and the results of that will also be evident at some point to somebody. If you do care, there are many free resources, including this blog, which can help you learn about the methodologies and tools you need to become a software craftsman or craftswoman.



Gentle Introduction: Docker

The tool I present in this article is the container technology phenomenon known as docker.  If you know a lot about docker already, this article is not for you (unless you have suggestions to improve the article).

What is it?

Briefly, docker containers are like virtual machines, except that instead of emulating a whole system, each container runs as an isolated process on a shared kernel. This is much more efficient. Each container is specified by a file (DockerFile – more on this later, if you get all the way to the end of this post), which is basically a scripting and configuration file for setting up everything that differs from the default system.

What’s the big deal?

I do not enjoy system administration or configuration, so docker does not come naturally to me as an interest, but it’s probably going to change the way all developers work (it’s already changed things for some).

What’s so revolutionary about docker and containers? Surely it’s an infrastructure thing best left to the operations people, right? Surely it’s only popular because it lets cloud infrastructure providers save money on hardware because containers use fewer resources than full VM’s?

No. Basically, because of docker, execution environment can be treated as code.

infrastructure == code

In the not-so-far future, because of containers, your build tool will not only build, package and deploy the software you develop, but it will also build, package and deploy the execution environment on which your software will run, including installing database(s), application server, etc.  Some people are already doing this using custom gradle code. In the long run, containers might even make virtual machine environments like the JVM and the CLR obsolete, because those environments were originally created to shield programs from differences between execution environments.

Docker has a central repository, Docker hub, which allows docker users to pull execution environment configurations (known as “images”) from the internet using the command line in the way that maven’s central repository allows maven to pull jar files.

Hello, Postgres

So let’s go through some steps to do something rather basic with docker: installing and running a postgresql database server in a docker container. It’s easy, because postgresql is freely available on docker hub.

Running a database in a container could be useful for integration tests – each developer would have an identical local database installation.

First you need to install docker.  You’ll need to follow the instructions for your machine on the docker installation docs page.
I installed it on Windows. First I had to fiddle with my BIOS menu to enable virtualization.  Then I downloaded and launched the Docker Toolbox binary. Pretty straightforward stuff.  The ToolBox installed an icon on my desktop called Docker Quickstart Terminal. Double-clicking it launches docker in a bash shell command-line window (in a VM). It takes a while to warm up. The VM is assigned a fairly standard IP address which is shown in the terminal when finishes launching. For me it was


Once you get a text prompt, you can pull the latest stable version of the postgresql image using the command:

docker pull postgres

This may take some time to finish all the downloads.

Once done, you can create a container called my-postgres to run the database:

docker run -p 5432:5432 --name my-postgres -e POSTGRES_PASSWORD=password -d postgres

Note that the -p option maps a port of the container to a port on the host. So for my-postgres the default postgres odbc port will be accessible from outside the container.
The -e option sets environment variables (in this case it sets the password for the default user “postgres” to be “password” (OWASP would not approve, but this is a tutorial).
The -d option runs the container as a background (a.k.a. “detached” or “daemon”) process and this option is not followed by an argument (the “postgres” at the end of the command is the name of the image to use).
On linux, you may need to prefix docker commands with sudo.

You can verify that the container is running with the command docker ps -a.

If you need to reboot your machine or if for some reason you find that your container is not running, you can restart it with the command `docker restart my-postgres`.

So how do you access that database now?  You need to know the IP address to connect to.  If you installed on Windows using the Docker Toolbox, and if you can’t find the IP in your Docker Quickstart Terminal window, the IP should appear in the output of the command

docker-machine ls


To get the IP on linux (don’t bother doing this on Windows, the result is only useful within the linux environment running docker), it seems you need to call

docker inspect --format '{{.NetworkSettings.IPAddress}}' my-postgres

Once you have the IP you can access via ODBC on port 5432 – using a tool like PGAdmin, for example. And you can write unit tests or create data sources in your web app using the IP and the port 5432.

And then?

This is already pretty cool, but you can go a lot farther with docker, linking data containers to application containers so that they can communicate with each other, extending the postgres container image to call SQL scripts on startup, mapping file directories in the container to file directories on the physical machine, etc. It can get a bit complicated, but the docker user guide is a good place to look to find out how to do all that.

A closer look at the DockerFile

I said earlier that infrastructure is now code, with Docker.  For the PostgreSQL container we used in our example, let’s take a quick, hand-wavy look at the DockerFile code under the hood.  You don’t need to do this to use the PostgreSQL image, but this is a techie blog, so let’s have a look under the hood.  The DockerFile for postgres 9.5 is at this link on docker hub.

The first line is:
FROM debian:jessie

Inheritance! A DockerFile starts with a FROM to indicate the parent image upon which it builds. By the way, the parent DockerFile debian:jessie is here, and it builds upon what is effectively the root image.

In the postgres DockerFile, there is a variety of commands. We see RUN used to launch linux commands like mkdir (to create file directories) and apt-get (to download and install software packages). We see ENV commands that set environment variables, like “PATH” and “PGDATA”. The EXPOSE command in the file tells Docker that the port in question is used by the container but does not make it visible from the outside (we did that with our docker run command above using the -p option). There’s also the VOLUME command which creates a mount point for a disk, a COPY command which copies into the container a shell script file which is part of the image (we see here that the postgres image consists of a DockerFile and a shell script file). There’s also an ENTRYPOINT command which launches the script file when the container is launched (ENTRYPOINT is different from RUN in that ENTRYPOINT associates the life cycle and output of the application launched with the life cycle and output of the container, allowing the use of a container to run a one-shot command and output the result, for example).