That is the question… debated in a recent civilized exchange of comments on this blog.
Like Ringo Star, I’m not afraid to position myself as pro-mock.
Of course mocking is not the goal, just a means of quickly writing tests which are focused on a small piece of logic. The goal is maintainable, thoroughly-tested code which functions as expected.
I’m not religious about mocking. If the method you’re testing has a collaborating class which you can just instantiate without any hassles and it works perfectly in the test from the start, then go for it. No need to mock. But that’s not something I see very often, apart from data structures or purely mathematical functions with no side effects. Most collaborating classes will use the network or disk or exhibit some non-repeatable behavior. At a minimum, there may be behavior that’s dependent on its state and which could evolve as the product evolves. You will likely need an integration test to show that your classes work together, but when you’re unit testing, you should be focused on the method you’re testing and not its collaborators.
For me (and many others), an interface is like a contract. If an interface is injected into the class I’m testing, I assume the object that implements it will do what’s expected, and I don’t care how it’s done. I would rather mock (or stub) the interface than write a test which gets involved with the details of its implementation. The contract doesn’t say the implementation won’t change, it just promises a certain behavior (a result and/ or side effects). If requirements evolve and the contract changes (different behavior, different return type, and/or different arguments), there will be some pain whether or not you use mocks, but it’s often more painful with mocks because many tests have to change (though the changes tend to be simple to implement). On the flip side, if, with no contract change, a bug slips into the implementation of the collaborating class, none of the tests which mock it will fail. If the creator of the collaborating implemented good unit tests, the bug will be spotted instantly in that case. On the other hand, without mocks, all the tests using the real collaborating class could fail at once, in which case it can take a little digging to find the bug.
There’s also the perhaps more frequent case of implementation details changing without a change to the interface. In that case, if the tests use mocks, there’s no issue at all. If, on the other hand, the tests call a constructor of the collaborating class which changes to add a new dependency, or if suddenly the collaborating class requires database access, all the tests without mocks are broken, often with no easy fix other than mocking.
For me, mocks are part of a modular approach to development. You develop little components, and testing quickly and simply with mocks you are confident that each component works exactly as specified. A few integration tests prove that the components can work together. This is the same sort of philosophy used with physical products such as cars. If you change the tire of your car, you don’t lose sleep over the fact that the tire has never been tested on the wheel in question. You assume that the tire has been tested, and you know that the wheel worked with a different tire with the same standards, and that’s that.